Currently, as a postdoctoral fellow, I continue to pursue my passion to understand and to describe how molecular machines function quantitatively. Specifically, I am investigating how the ribosome and the RNA polymerase cooperate in E. coli by means of optical trapping. This single molecule technique allows us to monitor one molecule at a time and therefore to identify events that may be lost in bulk experiment due to averaging. With an optical trap, we can apply force and probe the response of the molecule just as we change the temperature and measure the activity of a biochemical reaction. My current goals are to assess the mechanisms and to measure the kinetics of transcription when translation is hot on its heel. In the long term, I hope to provide novel means to perturb bacterial physiology especially when the coupling between the ribosome and the RNA polymerase is important in the regulation of gene expression.